“If you think that you c…

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“If you think that you cannot do a particular thing, then remember no one in the world can do that thing”
-Deepak singla

Hi, its me Deepak Singla who is guiding you in this whole blog. Please give your suggestions or write your comments on:-

A huge cluster of stars is known as galaxy.
Galaxies are formed by galactic collisions.
We are living in milky way
And you will be surprised to know that there are about
125 million galaxies are here
Our space is a mystery. No one knows about it. It very very very vast.
It is soo vast that we cannot imagine it.
Our neighbour galaxy
Andromeda nebula which is first known galaxy apart from Milky Way.
Andromeda the large margellanic cloud and a small margellanic cloud.

You have always seen stars in the dark night but have you ever thought that how they are made? What is their life? Why does they have a long life?
If you wanna be a scientist then you must think about all this.
Now , let me tell you
How they are formed?
1. To make a star one will need the perfect conditionsvast clouds of helium and dust.
2. Colapse fragments of clouds and shrink them to form a protostar.
3. Nuclear reactions occur. these  nuclear reaction supplies the enery required by the star.
4. a star can live for about 10 billion years.

Let us know more
Double star also known as al in the star cluster NGC 3603. the fastest star is neutron star identified as XTE JI739-285 which spins around at head turning,1,222 times a second.

There are millions and millions of stars in this universe. Now let me tell you some stars which are close to earth.following  are names of some stars which are nearer to earth after sun.

Closest star                            Distance
Proxima centuri                     4.2 light years
Alpha centuri A                     4.3 light years
Alpha centuri B                     4.3 light years
Barnard’s star                        5.9 light years
Wolf                                      359 7.8 light years
Lalande 21185                      8.3 light years
Sirius A                                 8.6 light years
Sirius B                                  8.6 light years
What do you think that all the stars have same brightness. If you are thinking so then you are wrong. Every star has its own brightness. It is not compulsory that more nearer the star the more brighter the star.
Following are the most bright star froms our spectacular universe.
Names    Distance from us     brightness
Sirius     8.6 ly    -1.44
Canopus     3.13 ly    -0.62
Rigi kentacures     4.31 ly    -0.28
Vega     2.5 ly     0.03


Our  sun is also a star. It is the nearest star to us. Sun was  formed about 5 billion years and now it can live only for more 5 billion years. It is known that our earth is a part of that star. That’s why it has a great temperature in its core. There are a lot of nuclear reactions occurring every second in the core of the sun.
There are some facts about the sun.

Diameter of sun
sun has a very large diameter which is about 11 times that of our earth. The diameter of our planet is just 12,713 km while that of sun is 1.4 million km (i.e. 1.4 x 105 km).
we see the sun very small because it is very far away from us. It is 147,600,000,000 m(1.476×1011 m) away from Earth

let us know more about our sun
the sun is like a huge fire-ball. It has a lot of temperature at its core. As our earth has different layers, sun also have Six different layers.
They all are explained below:-
Cornea: –                  The outer most layer of the sun
Chromo sphere: –    The inner atmosphere
Photosphere: –         The visible surface of sun from which the sun’s energy is released in blaze of light.
Convection: –           The layer through which energy travels outwards the sun through convections
Radiative zone:-      The layer through which energy travels outwards the sun through radiations.
Core:-                      The center of sun where nuclear reaction takes place.

How hot I am?
Now I am telling you the temperature of the different layers of the sun. it is very high. If you get trapped in its single layer, then no one cannot find even you bones. You will instantly converted into ash.

The temperature of its
Cornea is                                        2 million Celsius
Cornea and chromo spheree          2000-1 million Celsius
Chromo sphere                              4500 to 20000 Celsius
Photosphere                                  5500 Celsius
Core                                              15 million Celsius

let us learn units (related to space science)

The distance between the sun and earth is 1 AU (i.e. 1.476 x 1011m)
The distance traveled by the earth in one year is known as light year.
1 light year= 9.4 million million km (i.e. 365x24x60x60x3x105m)
1Cluster=10 million light years
1Super cluster=200 million light years

Rotation and revolution
The movement of a celestial body on its own axis is known as Rotation
The movement  of a celestial body around the other celestial body is known as Revolution.
Most of the celestial bodies in this universe are revolving around other celestial bodies.
Let me explain you with a most common example
Our earth  is revolving around the sun. our earth takes about 365.26 days to complete its one round around the sun.in the same way our sun, I can say the whole solar  system is revolving around the center of our galaxy. Scientists have proved this fact.. it is a very high speed. 220 million years are taken by the sun to orbit around the galaxy.

Have you ever heard of a black hole?
It is a region is the space from which nothing even light cannot escape. It is black because it absorbs all the light enter to it and it has a very high density.quantum mechanics predict that blach holes emit radiations like a black body with a finite temperature. This temperature is inversely propotional to the mass of the black hole, making it difficult to observe this radiation for black holes of stellar mass or grater.
Black holes of stellar mass are expexted to form when very massive stars collapse at the end of their life cycle. After a  black hole is formed it can continue to grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. By absorbing the stars and other massive things supermassive black hole is formed whose mass is equal to the millions of solar masses.
In particular, there is a strong evidence of a black hole at the center of our galaxy milky way which is equal to the 4 millions solar masses.

To know more contact:-

1. We get black holes when massive stars explode. These explosions are called supernovas.
2. Black holes can also be found at the center of active galaxies where there mass is equilant to the millions of stars.

the aliens were seen on the moon by an telescope. They were human like creature who had wings. They were seen in 16th century. The peoples were beliving in them. But a bit later it was found there is nothing on the moon.

The far sight of the moon was images in 1959 by soviet spacecraft, Luna 3.
Distance between earth and moon is 3, 84,480 km
Annual increase in distance between earth and moon and earth is 3.82 cm
0.18 milliseconds longer a day on earth becomes every century as the distance between moon and earth increases.

Till now I have told you about Moons, Stars, black holes etc. now I am going to tell you about the planets.
Planet is a celestial body which revolves around the sun(or any other celestial body) in a particular time. It is just a huge piece or rock and dust.
Terrestrial planets or rocky planets are which have similar characteristics to earth like mercury, Venus, earth and mars

Now, I am going  to explain you about the planet mercury which is nearest planet to Sun.

It is 2.5 times smaller than earth.
It is densest planet due to huge iron ore.
Temperature at day is 430’C and -180’C at night.
It is smallest planet.
It is first planet to sun.
Life is impossible on this planet.
It was named on the roman god who was a messenger and  has a very high speed.
Mercury     Venus    Earth    Mars
Diameter    4,875 km    12,104 km    12,713 km    6,780 km
Distance from sun    57.9 million km    108.2 million km    149.6 million km    227.9 million km
Rotation     59 days    243 days    23.93 hrs    24.63 hrs
Revolution    88 days    224.7 days    365.26 days    687 days

A venusian day is large than a venusan year.
Venus is slowest spinner.
it completes its one round on orbit in224.7 days but take 243 days to revolve on its orbit.
The time between one sunrise and sunset is 117 earth days.
Heat is trapped in the droplets in the sulphuric acids clouds in the Venus but most of the red light is reflected back. That is why it is very shining.
photographs were taken by the spacecrafts in 1976 and found that there a creature on the venus which resembles human. It was very high. But later it was found that it was a huge rock of 3.2 km long like a human face.


Mars have a lot of water in frozen state.
It was named due to god of wars
Ascraeus moon: a giant volcano shield.
Atmosphere:- made up of 95%carbon.
Valles mariners: a complex system of canyons more than 4000 km long and 5 km deep.
Olympus Mons is the largest volcano on mars. And in solar system. It is 24 km high and 648 km across.

These are the planets which are very large in diameter and have a very large number of moons. They are formed of a lot of gases. They have a special characterstics that density and temperature on these planets increases towards center.
In Jupiter and Saturn, the squashed gases become fluid and turns into liquid. Deeper still gases are like molten metal.
Their core is made up of rocky and metallic material
All of them have rings. They look solid from a distance but are made up of individual pieces that follow their orbit around the sun.

Planet    Jupiter    Saturn    Uranus     Neptune
Diameter    1,42,984km    1,20,536km    51,118km    49,532km
Distance from sun    778.3 millions km    1.43 billion km    2.87 billion km    4.5 billion km
Rotation    9.9 hrs    10.7 hrs    17.3 hrs    16.1 hrs

It is the biggest planet of the solar system composed of gaases and rocks.
Jupiter is shrinking. It was five times bigger when it was young. It is cooling and getting smaller about 2 cm every year.
it was names on the name of Romans king of wars and the king of the heavens
Jupiter has strongest magnetic field. no planet has magnetic field greater than its magnetic field. it is about 20000 times forceful than earth’s magnetic field.

As Saturn orbits around the sun, its rings can be viewed from different angles.
The rings are made up of particles of chunky, dust and ice in orbit around the planet.
The piece range in size from dust grain to large boulders several meters across.
The pieces are so reflective; The rings shine brightly and are easy to see.

Saturn is names after the father of roman god Jupiter.
Galileo galeli was the first to see Saturn rings in 1610.]
None of the gas giants are perfect spheres. they all are oblate (squashed balls). Saturn’s diameter at its equator is ten times more than its pole.
It is least dense planet even it can also float in water. Its density is about 0.66kg/m2.


It is named after the father of roman god saturm
It was discovered by William Hershel on 13 march 1781.
Uranus revolves around its orbit on one side. the planet is tilted over 98 degrees due to collisions of asteroid when it was young.
Like the other three gas giants Uranus’s atmosphere is mostly hydrogen. It also contains methane which absorbs red light and makes the planet blue.

It was named after the roman god of Saturn.
It is the fourth largest planet of the gas giants.
Neptune is 30 times far from sun than earth.
It is the coldest giant -200° at its cloud top sand has the fastest winds of any planet , reaching upto 2160 kmph near its equator.

Neptune was only discovered on 23 September 1846. Although it had been noticef many times before, Astronomers thought it to be a star.

They occur in the sky every night. They are fleeting streaks of light caused by the comet dust particles traveling through earth’s atmosphere. They all are spotted during one of the 20 or so annual showers.

Name of planets    Discovery date    Number of moons    Belts
Eris    2005    1    Kuiper belt
Pluto    1930    3    Kuiper belt
Haumea    2005    2    Kuiper belt
Makemade    2005    0    Kuiper belt
Ceres    1801    0    Main belt

Juipters biggest moon Ganymede and saturn’s biggest moon titan are both larger than planet mercury.


Planet    Location    Diameter
Vedefort    South Africa    300 km
Sudbury    Canada    250 km
Chic x club    Mexico    170 km
Popigai    Russia    100 km
Manicoligan    Canada     100 km
The largest meteorite found in hoba west, mambia in 1920.
It weighed 66 tonnes



This is the smallest of the uranus’s five major moons. Its rugged surface is covered with huge canyons.

The moon jupiteris covered in active volcanoes that are constanty renewing its surface.

The largest saturn’s moon. It is the only planetary moon to have thick atmosphere.

Mars has two tiny moons. Phobos is largest which is 27km across.

Mercury     0
Venus    0
Earth    1
Mars    2
Jupiter    At least 63
Saturn    At least 21
Uranus    At least 60
Neptune    13

Ganymede    Jupiter    5260 km
titan    Saturn    5150 km
callisto    Jupiter    4820 km
Lo    Jupiter    3640 km
Moon    Earth     3480 km
Europea    Jupiter    3120 km
Triton    Neptune    2710 km
Rhea    Saturn    1530 km
Oberon    Uranus    1520 km


The heart of the comet is an irregular shaped ball of snow and dust covered in a thin crust of dust.

As the comet moves close to the sun it forms a huge head and gas and dust.

The sun heat turns the nucleus snow to gas, which forces uot as blue tail.

Dust releases from the nucleus trails away from the comet as white tails.


The kuiper belt is a flat belt of comet like bodies beyond Neptune, which stretches from 6-12 billion km
More than 1000 kuiper belt objects have been discovered and it is suspected that 70000 objects yet to be discovered.
Four dwarf planets are founded and 200 are expected.
Most objects in the kuiper belt take more than 250 yrs to orbit around the sun.
A branch of radio telescopes known as Allen Telescope array listen for signs of alien like.

Captures invisible radio waves given out by stars and other objects in the space.
Andromeda galaxy is 2.5 million light years away from earth. This means that we see past. We see that galaxy as it was 2.5 million years ago.
The largest single radio telescope is 305 m looft dish at  Arecibo, puerto rico. Built in a hollow in the island hills. It faces different parts of sky. it faces different parts of the sky as the earth turns.
Some telescopes work together to produce a more detailed image. The very large array in new Mexico, USA consists of 27 radio telescopes each 25m across.
Ariel 1 first telescope put into orbit around the earth in 1962.

It was launched into space 24 April 1990 costing 1.5 billion US$.
The 13.2 m long telescope orbit around the earth in every 97 minutes at an altitude of 569 km, traveling at 8km/sec.
Hubble replacement the james webb space telescope, will launch in 2013. it will be located in 1.5 million km from earth.

A prob is a car or a bus sized robot that is individually designed for a specific purpose.
Rosetta which will orbit a comet and travel with it as journey around the sun.
Helioas 2 is fastest artificial object. It studies the sub in 1970’s, whizzing around at a staggering speed of 68.75 km per sec.

After a seven year voyage, Cassini Huygens the most expensive and one of the most sophisticated missions to date arrived at Saturn in July 2004.
Smaller Huygens, hitching a ride with casing, parachuted on the surface of the titan.
The whole mission cost US 3.26 $ billion. The united state s contributed US $ 500 million, and Italy gave. US $ 160 million.
The astronomers were jean Cassini and charitan Huygens, who name after the craft bear.
Moving Landers are called rovers.
Iss orbit around the earth at 2800 kmph.


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